A flag of Bosnia and Herzegovina

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a small country in the Balkan region of southern Europe. Its capital is Sarajevo. Bosnia and Herzegovina are on European Union agenda to join the economic block, which is likely to happen after 2015.[1]


It is one of the countries that broke off from Former Yugoslavia in the 1990's. During the Bosnian War (1991-95), ethnic groups consisting of Bosniaks (Muslim), Bosnian Serbs (Orthodox), and Bosnian Croats (Roman Catholics) fought for control of the country or areas in the country. The Croats and Bosniaks eventually allied with NATO against the Serbs and some of their Russian friends. Of course, some Bosnian Serbs joined the Bosniak army, not wanting to be in Jugoslavia, and an entire area - albeit small area - of Bosnia declared itself independent and helped the Serbs. This "Republic of Western Bosnia" composed of the city of Velika Kladuša, and its president was Fikret Abdić. Many war crimes such as looting, Murder, Torture, and predominantly rape, were perpetrated by both sides.

Bosnia was part of many empires and conflicts throughout history, which contributed to its ethnic diversity. All of Bosnia came under the Ottomans' rule in 1592 (with the city of Bihać holding out, surrounded, for 100 years more than most other cities), but was eventually retaken by Austria-Hungary after the Second Balkan Wars, in which Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, and Serbia became independent from the Ottomans.

In 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated by Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo, Bosnia's capital. After World War I, Bosnia came under the rule of Serbia's king in the first Jugoslavia.

During World War II , the pro-Nazi so-called "Independent" State of Croatia (which had a Poglavnik much like the Nazi Führer), controlled all of Bosnia and put many Gypsies, anti-Nazis, Communists, Serbs, and Jews into Jasenovac death-labor camp. Muslims were generally not persecuted. Josip Broz Tito and his partisans received aid from the allies after they proved their worth, and defeated both Nazi and Italian Fascist soldiers, as well as Serbian Fascist radical Četniks.

Afterward the war Tito was named president of Jugoslavia and officially made Bosnia its own territory, not split between Serbia and Croatia. After Tito declined Stalin's offer of friendship, Jugoslavia - and Bosnia with it - entered a time when nationalism was suppressed, but peace existed. There was Economic inefficiency as in all communist countries but former Yugoslavia had less inefficiency than many. After Tito died, a series of weaker leaders couldn't hold the country together. Then Slobodan Milošević was elected president of Jugoslavia. Afterwards, Slovenia, Macedonia, Croatia, and Bosnia declared independence, causing the war previously discussed.