|Harry S Truman|
The first example of fake news
|Political party:||Democratic Party|
|Military service:||World War I|
|Born||May 8, 1884|
|Died||December 26, 1972 (aged 88)|
|Predecessor||Franklin D. Roosevelt|
|Successor||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
Harry S Truman was President of the United States from 1945 to 1953. He dropped the "bomb" on Japan. History records this man as humble, and his Presidency is plagued because of the Korean Conflict. History judges him favorably but his decision to drop the "bomb" is however called into question. We know the terrible suffering that happened in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and historians blame Truman for that. However, to be fair, if the US military had to invade Japan, millions of both American and Japanese would've been killed.
Truman is the only president to only have a letter for his middle name.
"The Republican Party, as I said a while ago, favors the privileged few and not the common everyday man."- Truman at the DNC
Harry Truman assumed the office of the Presidency when President Franklin D. Roosevelt died of cerebral hemorrhaging on April 12, 1945. Truman was Vice President for only 82 days, during which he and Roosevelt only met together twice.
When it came around for Truman to run for a presidential term of his own right, most people assumed he would lose. The state of the country was not good. American WWII veterans were coming to a country not fit for war heroes. A tidal of strikes slowed production. The labor unions called Truman "Public Enemy #1" because Truman had to break a few strikes to kept the country moving. Inflation and housing shortages didn't do Truman any good either. Food shortages, such as meat, eggs and bread also afflicted the people.
The people's discontent with the state of affairs was evident in the 1946 midterms, where Republicans gained control of both houses of Congress for the first time since 1933. In the first case of petty partisan politics that afflicts America today, Republicans blocked almost all legislation Truman tried to pass, including but not limited to an increase in the minimum wage and an increase in school funding. Truman was viewed as incompetent, unappealing and unelectable.
In June 1948, the Republicans nominated New York Governor Thomas Dewey for president. Truman had defeated Dewey in 1944 as part of Roosevelt's fourth presidential victory. However, unlike in 1944, Dewey's chances for victory seemed inevitable.
In July 12, 1948, the Democratic National Convention convened in the same location as the RNC. As the incumbent President, Truman's nomination was secure. Although Truman watched the Convention on television, a new concept, he wouldn't attend until the early morning of July 15 to accept the nomination.
The Democratic Party became divided after a civil rights speech by Minneapolis Mayor Hubert Humphrey. He boldly claimed "the time has arrived in America for the Democratic Party to get out of the shadows of states' rights and walk forthrightly into the bright sunshine of human rights" and to support the civil rights movement. Racist Southern delegates were outraged. 22 delegates from Mississippi and 13 delegates from Alabama, two of America's most backward states, walked out of the delegation to nominate Strom Thurmond as a "Dixiecrat".
As a running mate, Truman picked Kentucky Senator Alben Barkley, the chairman of the Democratic National Convention since 1937.
During his acceptance speech, which was at 2 am, Truman talked to the people instead of speaking down to them. He rallied for the Democratic Party to unite. Truman famously claimed "Senator Barkley and I will win this election and make these Republicans like it — don't you forget that!" which started a slogan "Give 'em hell, Harry!"
Truman went on the attack against the Republicans, highlighting that Republicans were an anti-Semitic, anti-Catholic rich man's party and the Democratic Party looked out for the common people. He also accused them of hypocrisy. Just months before, the GOP had blocked Truman's legislation intended to revive the economy only to have the exact same measures in their 1948 platform. He challenged the Republicans to actually help the people or be the "Do Nothing 80th Congress". Of course, the Republicans refused and no legislation of consequence was passed.
Despite Republicans in Congress proving Truman right, the outcome looked gloom for him. A poll for 50 of the nation's most respected political journalists showed 50-0 that Dewey would win.
On September 17, 1948, less than two months before the election, Truman, accompanied by his wife and daughter, went campaigning on a train through the Midwest, where he trailed Dewey by 11 points. His strategy was to appeal to Republican-leaning voters, including farmers. In September 1948, 48% of farmers supported Dewey compared to Truman's 38%. Truman reminded them that farmers were the life-blood of the country and that he was on their side. In one particular visit, he introduced his wife as "The Boss", which garnered a few laughs.
In October, Truman accused the Republicans of only caring about "Big Business First", being for the fatcats in Wall Street instead of the common everyday man. "If you give the Republicans complete control of this government, you might just as well turn it over to the special interests, and we'll start on a Boom & Bust cycle just like we did in the 20s and end up with a crash, which in the long run will do nobody any good but the Communists." This helped him with his popularity as a populist. There was then just 5 points between Truman and Dewey.
However, a couple weeks later, Truman went too far. He compared the people backing Dewey to the financiers who backed Adolf Hitler. While today's Republicans are fascists, three years after World War II, this was viewed as slanderous and unfair. Dewey thought of hitting back at Truman by calling him a "Failed President", but given that such tactics hurt him in 1944, he relented after receiving a poll from the RNC. After all, in late October, the polls backed Dewey 49% to Truman's 45%. It seemed Dewey was destined to be President.
The election was held on November 2, 1948. The New York Times predicted Dewey would win with 345 electoral college votes. After casting his vote, Truman went to his native state of Missouri to await the results. He had half a ham and cheese sandwich and a glass of butter milk and went to bed. When Truman woke, he was informed that he had won the election with 303 electoral votes out of 266 minimum needed.
The Chicago Daily Tribune had jumped the gun and declared Dewey the victor. Harry Truman held up the newspaper in a famous photo.
"I shall not be a candidate for re-election. I have served my country long and I think efficiently and honestly. I shall not accept a re-nomination. I do not feel that it is my duty to spend another four years in the White House."- Truman drops out of the election.
The 22nd Amendment, ratified in 1951, stated that no one shall be elected president more than twice. It also stated that if a person ascended to the presidency and serving more than two years of his predecessor's term, he would only be allowed to run for one term. Truman had served all but 82 days of FDR's fourth term and was in the middle of his presidential term. But the 22nd Amendment included a grandfather clause that excluded specifically the incumbent President, from such limitations. This allowed Truman to be eligible to run for a technical third term in 1952 and beyond for the rest of his life.
However, the slow progression of the Korean War, his age, a faltering economy and allegations of corruption hurt Truman's chances of re-election. There's an old saying "To err is human" but opponents of Truman said "To err is Truman".
Truman realized he wasn't going to serve another term. He decided to pick a worthy successor. He and his advisers believed that it was Adlai Stevenson II, the Governor of Illinois and grandson of Vice President Adlai Stevenson. Adlai Stevenson had played a major part in the New Deal and had made himself to be a moderate to liberal governor. Truman summoned Stevenson to Washington to suggest he succeed him as President with Truman's own endorsement. But Stevenson refused as he was focused on winning another term as Governor of Illinois. He declared this in a February 3 CBS interview.
Without a successor lined up, Truman had to take on a candidate he viewed as disloyal by investigating fellow Democrats. Truman's main opponent was populist Tennessee Senator Estes Kefauver, who had chaired a nationally televised investigation of organized crime in 1951 and was known as a crusader against crime and corruption, which included fellow Democrats in Truman's circle. In the March 11 New Hampshire primary Kefauver upset Truman, winning 19,800 votes to Truman's 15,927 and capturing all eight delegates.
Truman realized he couldn't win against Kefauver. And so he dropped out of the race. On March 29, he made a speech announcing his withdrawal from the race at the Jefferson-Jackson Day Dinner. Some of Truman's loyal followers gasped and booed the decision. After the New Hampshire defeat, he demanded Stevenson once again run for the Democratic nomination. But again, Stevenson refused. Truman was dismayed, unsure of what to do to continue Democratic hold on the presidency.
The Democratic National Convention has held from July 21-26, 1952 in Chicago, Illinois. On July 21st, President Truman had ruled himself out as a candidate, but he was still determined to block Kefauver from getting the nomination. Truman wanted anybody but Kefauver. Because the Convention was held in Illinois, the state's Governor Adlai Stevenson was there and allowed to speak. His speech rallying the Democratic Party made him the obvious choice for nominee. The crowd's approval and applause for Stevenson changed his mind about running. He called President Truman.
"It's about time." The President said.
Truman publicly endorsed Stevenson. After three rounds of voting, Stevenson is made the nominee. Truman spoke of Stevenson at the convention.
"He's able, capable, and I consider it an honor and a privilege to present to you the Honorable Adlai Stevenson as nominee for the Democratic President."
And so Adlai Stevenson II accepted the Democratic Party's nomination for President of the United States. For some ungoldy reason, President Truman chose segregationist Alabama Senator John Sparkman as Stevenson's running mate.
During the 1960 U.S. Presidential Election, former President Harry Truman made some controversial comments about Democratic nominee Massachusetts Senator John F. Kennedy. On July 2, 1960, the aging former President went on television questioning whether Kennedy was ready to be President and recommended that maybe Kennedy should step aside for a more 'qualified' man. While Truman spoke of Kennedy's age and inexperience, it's quite possible the Baptist Truman was attacking Kennedy as a Catholic, which was a campaign issue in the election. On July 4, 1960, Kennedy responded to Truman, saying he did not intend to step aside and that he was going to press on, with or without Truman's support. All divisions were healed up by the time the Democratic Convention was over.
Pros and Cons
- World War I veteran
- Ended World War II
- Integrated the US military
- Insisted that the Nazis be tried for their crimes
- Marshall Plan, gave aid to war-torn Europe
- Fair Deal
- Refused to use nuclear weapons during the Korean War
- Berlin Airlift (instead of using military force)
- Fought to stop the anti-Communist hysteria/McCarthyism
- Gave the Jews a home with the establishment of Israel
- Made progress with Civil Rights
- Rallied against Jim Crow laws
- The Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
- Was less Progressive than FDR
- Gave an early and unwitting boost to McCarthyism by authorizing "loyalty boards" to investigate Federal employees.
- Launched the Cold War
- Choose segregationist Senator John Sparkman to be Adlai Stevenson's running mate in the 1952 (bruh)