Overfishing occurs when fishers take more of a fish species than can be sustained by reproduction. This has frequently resulted in commercial extinction of fish stocks. One explanation for overfishing is that capitalism underprices renewable natural resources because the time horizon of individuals and firm is so much closer than that for societies.

One of the results of overfishing is the systemic fraudulent mislabeling of seafood in the United States, with catfish substituted for grouper and thresher shark substituted for swordfish and mahi mahi. Elizabeth Rosenthal. "Some Foul Play At Fish Market" The New York Times. May 27, 2011. B1, B4.


  • For underpicing of renewable resources see Erik Olin Wright. 2010. Envisioning Real Utopias. London: Verso. pp. 57-58.