- Spanish can refer to the people who live in Spain. There are different cultures in different regions of Spain. Some, notably the Basques and Catalans even want to separate from Spain. The Roman Catholic Church was the official Spannish religion till 1978 but hass lost influence. There are about 1 Million Spanish Muslims, mostly North African immigrants. 
- Spanish can also refer to the language spoken in parts of Spain and in many Latin American countries which is called Spanish. Large parts of the Spanish language are derived from Latin and some parts are from Arabic. Actually the standard Spanish language is Castilian but other languages are also spoken in Spain. Basque which has no relation to any other language is spoken by the French border.
Castilian is the standard Spanish language, but Catalan (akin to Provençal), Galician (akin to Portuguese), and Basque, unrelated to any other language, are still spoken and written extensively in their respective districts.